All operations have some inherent risk. Any procedure which involves cutting into a body cavity has the potential for bleeding and infection so standard precautions are taken to promote sterile technique and control of blood vessels. Preventive doses of antibiotics are routine in cardiac surgery.

Anesthesia has become a very safe proposition with the advent of modern balanced anesthetic techniques and extensive monitoring on many different levels. The risk of general anesthesia alone is considered to be less than one in ten thousand.

The specific risks of the Ross Procedure will be discussed in terms of Mortality (literally not surviving to leave the hospital) and Morbidity (complications which can prolong hospital stay or have serious consequences) with specific reference to the incidence of these problems in Dr. Stelzer’s personal experience.